The flower of this plant was commercially cultivated for use as a dye in the Mediterranean region in medieval times. But the source of the English word was medieval Italian. The “-fur” or “-far” part of the Arabic word mutated in Italian to “-flore -fiore” which is Italian for flower. Medieval Italian spellings included asfiore, asflore, asfrole, astifore, affiore, zaflore, saffiore, all meaning safflower. The earliest known for the name saffron in Latin is year safranum location in Genoa in Italy, in a commercial contract. Also English organic chemical safranin. The saphena vein is in the human leg.
The Evidence for a Recent Dating for Adam, 14, to 15, years ago
This monumental Qur’anic manuscript on parchment showing a well-formed kufic script, written in dark-brown ink with sparse diacritical marks and no ornamentation. Total number of folios are A monumental Qur’anic manuscript on parchment showing a well-formed kufic script. The script is slightly sloping backwards with tall ascenders and is strongly reminiscent of the type of well executed kufic script exhibited during the Umayyad period.
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The Aramaic language has fewer consonants than Arabic, so during the 7th century new Arabic letters were created by adding dots to existing letters in order to avoid ambiguities. Further diacritics indicating short vowels were introduced, but are only generally used to ensure the Qur’an was read aloud without mistakes.
There are two main types of written Arabic: Classical Arabic – the language of the Qur’an and classical literature. It differs from Modern Standard Arabic mainly in style and vocabulary, some of which is archaic. All Muslims are expected to recite the Qur’an in the original language, however many rely on translations in order to understand the text.
It is the language of the vast majority of written material and of formal TV shows, lectures, etc. Each Arabic speaking country or region also has its own variety of colloquial spoken Arabic. These colloquial varieties of Arabic appear in written form in some poetry, cartoons and comics, plays and personal letters. There are also translations of the bible into most varieties of colloquial Arabic.
Arabic has also been written with the Hebrew , Syriac and Latin scripts. Notable Features Type of writing system: Additional letters are used when writing other languages.
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This dramatic event, counted as Seleucus’ first regal year, was continued as the Seleucid Era, the first continuous count of time in world chronology, soon to inspire the similar Arsacid Era of Parthia. There is also the residual uncertainty about Hellenistic dating. Bickerman, for instance, positively asserted that Seleucus reconquered Babylon “in August of ” [Chronology of the Ancient World, Cornell University Press, , , , p.
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January 11, istock A surprising number of common English food and beverage words have Arabic backgrounds. Spanish absorbed many Arabic words during the centuries that the Moors occupied the Iberian Peninsula, to AD. Some of these words spread to other European languages, including French. Following the Norman Conquest, some of them entered English. Sometimes, though, the words traveled other routes from Arabic to English.
Alcohol The word originally referred not to intoxicating drink, but to enticing eye make-up. The cosmetic was still used in North Africa and the Middle East when the word entered English in the s. Although the powder was made by grinding various minerals, alcohol came to mean any fine powder or a distilled essence or spirit. In the s, alcohol acquired its current meaning: Apricot This word has a baroque history. It entered English in the 16th century from Portuguese albricoque or Spanish albaricoque, but later was modified by the related French word abricot.
Flag of the Arab League , used in some cases for the Arabic language Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz — Arabic usually designates one of three main variants: In practice, however, modern authors almost never write in pure Classical Arabic, instead using a literary language with its own grammatical norms and vocabulary, commonly known as Modern Standard Arabic MSA. MSA is the variety used in most current, printed Arabic publications, spoken by some of the Arabic media across North Africa , and the Middle East , and understood by most educated Arabic speakers.
Certain grammatical constructions of CA that have no counterpart in any modern dialect e.
It creates an immediately recognisable identity, one that is founded in an all-embracing philosophical and cosmological approach to the creation of designed and constructed works, contrasting multiplicity and unity. It honours nature in an abstract decorative art, and benefits through its lack of restriction by the constraints of a numerical system. A brief introduction to the history of Arabic or Islamic geometry is set out on the next page together with methods by which those geometries can be readily constructed using the traditional means of a straight edge and a pair of compasses.
These first four illustrations are of Islamic geometric patterns that have been executed on different materials, respectively silver, stone, leather and glazed mosaic, and are commonly considered representative of Islamic design. While not demonstrating the wide variety of geometric treatments to be found in Islamic or Arab geometries, they are here to introduce something of the design character and materials that were used in decoration. But having said that, I believe it would be useful to begin this page with a note on the understanding we in the West have of Arabic or, perhaps more accurately, Islamic geometrical design as it is a wide field of study and there are many misconceptions about its origins, interpretation and character.
The patterns with which we are familiar are to be found within a variety of Islamic cultures, but are often considered to be common to areas of Arab conquest. At its simplest, Arab scholarship enlarged our comprehension of underlying geometries, and Muslim craftsmen, not all of them Arabs, relied on this body of knowledge in producing their characteristic fields of tiles, mosaic, plaster and wooden patterns that were applied to elements of their buildings.
Generally they are seen as two-dimensional surface treatments, though there are examples of three-dimensional work in many areas of the Islamic world, particularly with the muqarnas. To take the argument a little further, the distinction might suggest that the work is considered Islamic when employed in the service of religious buildings. However, with Islam governing all aspects of Muslim life, the argument would suggest that geometric designs, with their inherent character supporting introversion and reflection, should all be considered Islamic.
The first point to bear in mind is that there are three types of patterning common to the designs found in Islamic cultures: Arabesque or cursive, calligraphic, and geometric or polygonal, the latter of which contains the largest number of examples we are likely to come across, and is the area most commonly examined from the perspective of their mathematical bases. The first example, above, typifies the kind of design that comes to mind when thinking of Arabic geometric designs.
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Psychologists highlight pitfalls of online dating By Amanda Gardner, Health. Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds. The review stresses that websites are a valuable resource for daters — as long they don’t put too much stock in the profiles. Story highlights Dating websites may warp a person’s outlook and expectations, according to a new review One of the weaknesses of online dating is an over reliance on “profiles” The abundance of profiles online also may make daters too picky and judgmental Thanks to the proliferation of online dating, would-be couples are now almost as likely to meet via email or a virtual “wink” as they are through friends and family.
In , when the Internet was still in its infancy, less than 1 percent of Americans met their partners through personal ads or matchmaking services. Single people have more options than ever before, as websites such as Match.
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History of the Hindu—Arabic numeral system The numeral “zero” as it appears in two numbers 50 and in an inscription in Gwalior. Dated to the 9th century. The system was revolutionary by including zero in positional notation , thereby limiting the number of individual digits to ten. It is considered an important milestone in the development of mathematics.
One may distinguish between this positional system, which is identical throughout the family, and the precise glyphs used to write the numerals, which varied regionally. The first universally accepted inscription containing the use of the 0 glyph in India is first recorded in the 9th century, in an inscription at Gwalior in Central India dated to Numerous Indian documents on copper plates exist, with the same symbol for zero in them, dated back as far as the 6th century AD, but their dates are uncertain.
Inscriptions in Indonesia and Cambodia dating to AD have also been found. Modern-day Arab telephone keypad with two forms of Arabic numerals:
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