Paper money glossary and terminology

In Depth Tutorials and Information Ink Analysis Introduction Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured. Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made. Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks can estimate how long inks have been written on paper. This is done by: In cases where known dated writings are not available for comparison with questioned inks, accelerated aging heating the ink to induce aging of the ink can sometimes be used to estimate the age of ink using any or all of the above described techniques. Iron-based inks can be dated by measuring the migration of iron along the fibers of the paper by Scanning auger microscopy. This article describes state of the art procedures for the chemical and physical comparison, identification and dating of inks on questioned documents. Composition of Major Types of Writing Inks Knowledge of the composition of inks is necessary to understand the reasons for the various methods used to analyze inks.

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Antique Ink Bottles An ink bottle was made of glass and typically sat on a desk. The writer would dip the pen or quill into the bottle to put more ink on the pen. Because they set on a desk, ink bottles were often decorative. Ink wells as opposed to “ink bottles” were typically metal with a glass insert, often ornate, and sat on a desk.

() Alembics and Stills (3 rd century AD) Purification by evaporation and condensation. According to Egyptian mythology, Alchemy was founded by the goddess Alchemy seemed similar to cooking, it was once considered to be a feminine art, or women’s work (opus mulierum).. This goes a long way toward explaining that one of the earliest alchemist on record is a woman.

We offer over 37 years of experience and training in a wide range of forensic science and private investigation disciplines. We specialize in ink dating, handwriting, art dating, questioned document examinations, fraud detection and forensic analysis. Stewart was born in Asheville, North Carolina. Stewart has worked for the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During that time he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, the John Wilkes Booth diary, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e.

Ivan the Terrible, the reinvestigation of the Dr. Additionally, he has been called upon to examine and assist in determining the authenticity of various historic constructions and sculptures to include pieces of Nok Terra Cotta, Mammoth Ivory, and Brazzerville and Songye Tribal Horns as well as various paintings and porcelains to include works potentially by Dahl, Picasso, Kandinsky, Cezanne, DeKooning, Kliun, Popova, Lissitzky, Malevich and Hopper.

His efforts have directly assisted the U. He has testified as an expert witness in state, federal and military courts of law, as well as testified or been deposed in foreign court systems to include; Austria, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. He has also testified at The Hague in the Netherlands and three times before the U. In that role, he managed up to scientists, technicians, and support staff in the areas of document analysis, handwriting, fingerprints, trace evidence, audio and video analysis, photography, toolmarks, computer evidence and counterfeit analysis.

Our goal is to provide efficient examination of evidence in order to help you find the truth. We are a worldwide operation.

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Contact Ink Dating There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr.

Cantu in the s.

Home History Glossary Publishers Artists Techniques Topicals Warfare Blog Contact: Guide to Real Photo Postcards: This guide is meant to aid the collector in identifying and dating real photo postcards, and to act as a reminder that it is impossible to do so with great accuracy.

Emergency notes -local or private notes issued under emergency condition: In German called notgeld see notgeld. Engraved printing intaglio -printing method of 3 dimensional character from engraved plates. Errors -most common paper money errors are: Essay -a trial or design of new note. It may be drawn, printed or partially printed. Face -the front side of a note, usually with signatures and numbers.

Fantasy notes -a totally invented or concocted note. Foxing -yellow-brown aging stains on the paper. Guilloche -the geometric design, printed as security device. Haj Pilgrim notes -banknotes issued for use only by pilgrims in another country. Hansatsu -Japanese Government, local or private paper money issued approximately from to

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Keith Ray surveys the four great Chinese inventions that have changed the World. Over thousands of years China has produced a great stream of inventions, ranging from the mundane chopstick and wheelbarrow, to sophisticated earthquake detectors and the advanced concept of bank notes. But in China there are four inventions traditionally referred to as the Four Great Inventions.

These are paper, gunpowder, the compass and printing.

glossary and terminology for banknotes and paper money numismatic collectors.

Preparing manuscripts[ edit ] Once the vellum is prepared, traditionally a quire is formed of a group of several sheets. Raymond Clemens and Timothy Graham point out, in their Introduction to Manuscript Studies, that “the quire was the scribe’s basic writing unit throughout the Middle Ages”. They note “‘pricking’ is the process of making holes in a sheet of parchment or membrane in preparation of its ruling.

The lines were then made by ruling between the prick marks The process of entering ruled lines on the page to serve as a guide for entering text. Most manuscripts were ruled with horizontal lines that served as the baselines on which the text was entered and with vertical bounding lines that marked the boundaries of the columns”. A quarter of the copy edition of Johannes Gutenberg ‘s first Bible printed in with movable type was also printed on vellum, presumably because his market expected this for a high-quality book.

Paper was used for most book-printing, as it was cheaper and easier to process through a printing press and bind. In art, vellum was used for paintings, especially if they needed to be sent long distances, before canvas became widely used in about , and continued to be used for drawings, and watercolours. Old master prints were sometimes printed on vellum, especially for presentation copies, until at least the seventeenth century. Limp vellum or limp-parchment bindings were used frequently in the 16th and 17th centuries, and were sometimes gilt but were also often not embellished.

In later centuries vellum has been more commonly used like leather, that is, as the covering for stiff board bindings. Vellum can be stained virtually any color but seldom is, as a great part of its beauty and appeal rests in its faint grain and hair markings, as well as its warmth and simplicity. For this reason, many important documents are written on animal vellum, such as diplomas.

: Derwent Inktense Ink Blocks, 24 Count (): Office Products

Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin by P. Tite6 Reprinted from Nature, Vol. As Controls, three samples whose ages had been determined independently were also dated. The results provide conclusive evidence that the linen of the Shroud of Turin is mediaeval. The Shroud of Turin , which many people believe was used to wrap Christ’s body, bears detailed front and back images of a man who appears to have suffered whipping and crucifixion.

The Secret Service Uses This Massive Ink Library to Catch Forged Documents The International Ink Library uses thin layer chromatography to investigate and identify types of ink.

When World War I ended at the end of , the rate was lowered to its prewar level of one cent. The postal rate was raised briefly from 1 cent to 2 cents in and in ; the conclusive raise to 2 cents was in Commission Rate Board overestimated revenue needs in and was forced to reduce the postage rate in These were illustrations on government-printed postal cards and on privately printed souvenir cards. The government postal cards included a printed 1-cent stamp; the privately printed souvenir cards required a 2-cent adhesive postage stamp to be affixed.

Messages were not permitted on the address side of the cards; after attempting various forms of explaining that regulation, the U. The required postage was a 1-cent adhesive stamp. At this time, a dozen or more American printers began to focus on post card production. Still, no message was permitted on the address side. Real Photo Post Cards to Post cards that are actual photographic replications were first produced around

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The first commercial postcards produced in the U. These were the first privately printed souvenir postcards in the country. The words “Post Card” were not printed on postcards until December 24, Cards previous to that had to have the Private Mailing Card Statement. So, if your card is marked “Private Mailing Card,” is dates from – A divided back postcard example 3 has a line down the middle, or some other indication that one half of the back is for the address and the other half is for a message.

Speckin Forensic Laboratories Staff. Speckin Forensic Laboratory employ’s three document examiners, one fingerprint examiner, an ink dating chemist, two DNA consultants, one toxicologist, one arson and fire investigator, three crime scene experts, a trace evidence and impression evidence examiner, two computer forensic and cell phone examiners as well as two secretaries.

North Carolina Areas of Expertise: Private practice for 30 years examining cases from all 50 states, and internationally. Accepted as an expert witness and testified in state civil and criminal courts in 11 states and in federal court; California Areas of Expertise: New York Areas of Expertise: Document examinations are provided Pennsylvania Areas of Expertise:

Postcard Dating

The guqin is a plucked seven-string instrument as can be seen in the painting at the left. Bo Ya was amazed by the woodcutter’s deep understanding of the music and the two quickly became close friends. Bo Ya needed to continue his journey home but before leaving his new friend he promised to return in one year. As promised, Bo Ya returned the next year only to discover that his friend had died.

Bo Ya was deeply saddened by the news and immediately went to burn incense at the woodcutter’s grave. He also played “High Mountain” and “Flowing Water” on his guqin in honor of his friend.

Images and history of Chinese paper money with explanation of the vignettes, pictures and portraits.

Whether you yourself are new to non-monogamous relationships , getting involved with someone who is new, or just ready for a refresher course, here are seven common myths about non-monogamous relationships and the facts that disprove them. Cheating represents a non-monogamous relationship A quick online search yields many a claim that cheating was, in fact, a type of a non-monogamous relationship.

That, however, is like saying that stealing is a type of trade. Make no mistake – just because a relationship is non-monogamous does not mean that cheating is impossible. If a couple agrees to threesomes only but one partner makes out with a stranger in a bar? Four parties in a group relationship agree not to involve new partners before getting tested, but then someone does the deed prematurely? Non-monogamy is not something that takes place in dark corners and on password protected apps without the knowledge and consent of all parties involved.

As do monogamous relationships, non-monogamous relationships require mutual trust and respect, while cheating undermines trust, respect and consent. To wit, cheating may fit the criteria of non-monogamy to the extent that there are more than two. But if everyone is not on board?

MetroPostcard Real Photo Postcard Guide

Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Under a Creative Commons license open access Abstract Although degradation of iron gall ink containing paper has been scientifically studied for almost years, we still do not have a good understanding of the kinetics of the process. While many studies focussed on model samples to avoid the inhomogeneity of real historic samples or the need for sampling, this research was conducted on a selection of real documents.

The analytical methods were optimised such that sample consumption was minimised and errors and uncertainties were evaluated. The results show that the rate of degradation, measured as change in the degree of polymerisation of cellulose in paper beneath ink, can be described in Arrhenius terms, and that the apparent activation energy for the process depends on the moisture content in the material.

The variation is consistent with the process of hydrolysis becoming less prominent at lower moisture content values, although the results indicate that hydrolytic degradation predominates during natural ink-induced degradation. In the context of the historic samples used in the study, the presence of ink accelerated the degradation of paper by a constant factor of 1.

() Alembics and Stills (3 rd century AD) Purification by evaporation and condensation. According to Egyptian mythology, Alchemy was founded by the goddess Alchemy seemed similar to cooking, it was once considered to be a feminine art, or women’s work (opus mulierum).. This goes a long way toward explaining that one of the earliest alchemist on record is a woman.

Dating, numbering, coding and data printing is easily transferred from computers, automatic scales, barcode readers, control equipment and other external devices. Onsite Demonstrations and Trials — Test our printers in your facility, and on your specific applications, against any competitive printers. Customer Training — To ensure proper setup and operation of your ink-jet printing systems, we offer leading-edge training sessions on all of our products either on-site or at our facility.

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tracy chapman – telling stories – paper ink